Your character has the ability called TTD (Tactical Time Dilation). This page of the guide to The Outer Worlds will help you with this aspect of the game.
If you have played games from the Fallout series, then you have probably used the VATS system. TTD is its counterpart. The TTD bar is displayed in the left corner of the screen, under the health bar.
When activated, time slows down. You can now easily eliminate large groups of enemies. Just aim and shoot. However, remember that shooting in this mode depletes the bar - if it runs out completely, you will automatically stop using this ability.
While using TTD in The Outer Worlds, aim at an opponent to see their brief description. You will learn to which faction your opponent belongs, how much life they have and how do they attack. This will help you to come up with the right tactics.