Mealwood. A strange plant that grows "living" and moving seeds. It is the most common plant. You can dig it up and sow it in planter boxes. It needs about 5 cycles from when it has been planted to mature. It is necessary to have a suitable temperature, around 20-30 degrees. After harvesting, it takes about 2-3 days for it to be harvestable again. You can harvest crops 3 times from one planted seed. Each harvest will yield 8 or 16 Meal Lices, and equivalent of 800 or 1600 calories. A drawback is the fact that the quality of this meal is very low, only -3 (grisly). You can create a slightly more caloric meal using 500kcal of meallice and 50kg of water in a machine called the Microbe Musher. This will enable you to create a Lice Loaf meal, with twice the amount of calories, 1000 kcal, and a bit better quality of -2 (terrible). If you've got enough water, you should invest in this Food.
Bristle Blossom. A rarer plant, which produces nutritious fruits. You can dig it up and plant it in your base. It needs cooler conditions than Mealwood and also a certain concentration of any gas. It takes as much as 10 days for the plant to produce the first crop. After each harvest, it takes 2 days to produce another fruit which is worth 1600 calories and has a quality of -1 (poor). A significant advantage of this plant is the fact that it can bear up to 5 fruits before it needs to be replanted. You can also use the fruit to create a less caloric meal, which will have quality improved by one point. Namely the Gristle Berry, prepared in Cooking Station.
Muckroot. This is a fairly common plant, which yields a ready-to-eat vegetable worth 1,000 calories after being dug up. However, it cannot be replanted or otherwise reacquired, it is a one-time use food source. You can sometimes come across a buried Muckroot while digging tunnels.
Sleet Wheat. It's a peculiar grain cultivated deep inside the asteroid. Large amounts can be found in the cold biome. In contrast to most other plants, it prefers cold temperatures, from -55 to 5 degrees Celsius. It's got a very long maturation period, as much as 20 cycles, but offers a significant amount of grain in return: from 25 to 75 grains. Each seed can be planted or used to produce food. While the crop itself is inedible, it can be used to cook Frost Bun, prepared from 3 grains on a Cooking Station. It's actually quite decent (food quality -1) and provides 1000 kcal. Long maturation period prompts the player to create larger farming grounds. Additionally, the plant has a positive influence on environments and Decor.
Pincha Pepper. It's a somewhat unusual crop that is inedible by itself. When combined with other types of food however, it can be used to make delicious, quality meals. It prefers high temperatures, between 35 and 85 degrees Celsius. Maturation period is long; it needs 25 days before it can be harvested, and 20 more cycles before next harvest. You can harvest it up to three times, each time collecting 4 or 8 Pincha Peppernuts. The fruit is required to bake various other meals, such as: BBQ, Pepper Bread, Stuffed Berry. While they do not have the best calories to time and effort ratio, they offer better quality, which may help in relieving stress and meeting the requirements of some duplicants. The plant also provides a +15 bonus to Decor.