Both tutorial flights were described with rookie pilots in mind. They were strongly simplified, some activities and procedures have been purposely omitted.
Please remember that some ATC instructions will vary during the flight and the ATC instructions, NOT tutorial instructions should be followed.
VOR - VOR system (VHF Omnidirectional Range). Consists of the ground VOR station and the VOR receiver aboard the plane. When navigating with VORs, we can fly towards or from a specific station and intercept one of its 360 radials. The VOR stations may be equipped with DME (Distance Measuring Equipment), creating VOR/DME system. In this case the onboard VOR receiver can also read the distance from/to the VOR station.
ILS - (Instrument Landing System); The system is responsible for guiding the aircraft along the optimal landing path. It consists of the horizontal beam (localizer), the vertical beam (glideslope) and markers (distance measuring beacons). The aircraft are equipped with proper receivers being able to read the ILS system signals.
Intersection - fixed points in the airspace, usually intersections of airways or other specific points, like the point where an airway changes direction. They are defined only by coordinates.
Transponder - the onboard device that sends the "squawk" used to identify planes in the airspace by the ATC.
Transponder squawk - 4-digit number set by the crew and emitted by the transponder, which lets the ATC do identify and track the aircraft over the airspace.
FMC - (Flight Management Computer). The computer that provides automatic flight guidance. Planned route is stored in its memory and then followed. Continuous aircraft data analysis provides calculations for take-off and landing speeds, estimated time of arrival, the amount fuel after landing, etc.
IFR - (Instrument Flight Rules); The pilot flies the aircraft in conformity with instrument rules, ex. bad or no visibility.
ATIS - (Automatic Terminal Information Service); ATIS system provides aircraft crews with most up-to-date information on the airport organizational issues and weather conditions (wind, precipitation, pressure, etc.)
Flight Director - the system shown on display or analogue gauge, which indicated the optimal flight path (vertical and horizontal). Flying with F/D help means the lines form a cross