This page of the FF7 Remake guide describes another Discovery - Waste Recovery. You can get it during Chapter 7 - A Trap is Sprung.
You come across this Discovery soon after you have removed the parts from the boss using the access cards. A little further, just before you face the boss, you have to move the levers according to Tifa's commands. That way, you will be able to get into a room with defective parts and pick up equipment from the boss.
The task is quite simple and you have an unlimited number of tries. Move the levers according to the information on the screen and do it simultaneously with Tifa. Not too fast, not too slow. If you make a few mistakes in a row, you will get some funny dialogue from the team - think of it as a bonus.
After that, go to the locked door. Inside, you will find a few items - Magic Up Materia and disassembled components from boss. These will be depending on the previously selected gear - you can get usable items like grenades, potions, etc.