Quest Hubs - this sign and similar landmarks point to locations with quest givers. Every quest hub got his own short story.
Skyshards - located on ground level ore above.
Skyshards (underground) - located in dungeons or caves
Wayshrines - you can teleport to previously visited Wayshrines. If you die you show up at the nearest Wayshrines.
Public Dungeons and Caves - solo or group, caves or dungeons. You will visit this locations with random players.
Group Dungeons - private group dungeon, you can visit it with your group only. You will not meet other players here. The difficulty of the dungeon is set for 4 person group.
Dark Anchor - spawning point for Molag Bal forces. This is the place where you can with other players try to destroy the Anchor.
World Bosses - elite enemies encounters for groups.
Locales - places to visit, for a visit all on the map you get achievement
Item Set Crafting Location - every item crafted in this location will be part of specific set. Different bonuses can be found at different crafting stations.
Mundus Stones - Every Mundus Stone will give you special endless bonus of some kind. You can get only one bonus at same time.